Arnold Newman took a series of photographs of the elderly Stravinsky at work with his scissors, snipping out short musical phrases and piecing them in place; he also snapped something that must be unique in the history of photographs of composers, a picture of Stravinsky erasing a note – perhaps the most Stravinskian gesture of all.
So music has a fiction in that kind of film, but in most films, music is only present to fill in emotions that are lacking. Most films claim to be realistic and the use of music in them is therefore a lie. In real life we never hear music in our lives unless it’s played on the radio or television or a musician is present. But music is used then to make up for lack of tension that the director hasn’t managed to create. I have nothing against musicals—for example, I love the films of Fred Astaire and the films of Hitchcock, but those aren’t realistic films. The use of music in conventional cinema is usually used or almost always used to make up for what’s lacking in emotion because the director has not done his job properly.
With pop music now, it sometimes feels like the end of history. You can shuffle and reconfigure continuously. But it’s interesting that in the midst of all this technologically-driven creativity there is a surge towards performance. In a way, we’re going back to how it was before there was recording technology, when the song or piece of music existed only in performance and reinterpretation. People seem to want the communality of the live experience. They want to get out and be together as opposed to sitting alone, looking at a screen. The neurologist, Oliver Sacks, says that music is something that is never an isolated thing. You can organise a group and play and it can make you feel better in all sorts of ways. It can spread out into your whole life. That’s an incredible thing.
What do you think is needed for the perfect Sunday morning?
Rainer Werner Fassbinder: Caviar, champagne, the Eighth Symphony of Mahler, “Radio-Activity” by Kraftwerk, the Sunday Bild paper, a book so exciting you don’t want it to end, a friend, a good friend, and the possibility of unplugging the phone.
”They played Beethoven’s ‘Kreutzer Sonata’. Do you know its first movement, the presto? You know it?” he burst out. “Ah! It’s a fearful thing, that sonata. Especially that movement. And music in general’s a fearful thing. What is it? I don’t know. What is music? What does it do to us? And why does it do to us what it does? People say that music has an uplifting effect on the soul: what rot! It isn’t true. It’s true that it has an effect, it has a terrible effect on me, at any rate, but it has nothing to do with any uplifting of the soul. Its effect on the soul is neither uplifting nor degrading – it merely irritates me. How can I put it? Music makes me forget myself, my true condition, it carries me off into another state of being, one that isn’t my own: under the influence of music I have the illusion of feeling things I don’t really feel, of understanding things I don’t understand, being able to do things I’m not able to do. I explain this by the circumstance that the effect produced by music is similar to that produced by yawning or laughter. I may not be sleepy, but I yawn if I see someone else yawning; I may have no reason for laughing, but I laugh if I see someone else laughing.
Music carries me instantly and directly into the state of consciousness that was experienced by its composer. My soul merges with his, and together with him I’m transported from one state of consciousness into another; yet why this should be, I’ve no idea. I mean, take the man who wrote the ‘Kreutzer Sonata’, Beethoven: he knew why he was in that state of mind. It was that state of mind which led him to perform certain actions, and so it acquired a special significance for him, but none whatever for me. And that’s why that kind of music’s just an irritant – because it doesn’t lead anywhere. A military band plays a march, say: the soldiers march in step, and the music’s done its work. An orchestra plays a dance tune, I dance, and the music’s done its work. A Mass is sung, I take communion, and once again the music’s done its work. But that other kind of music’s just an irritation, an excitement, and the action of the excitement’s supposed to lead to simply isn’t there! That’s why it’s such a fearful thing, why it sometimes has such a horrible effect. In China, music’s an affair of state. And that’s the way it ought to be. Can it really be allowable for anyone who feels like it to hypnotize another person, or many other persons, and then do what he likes with them? Particularly if the hypnotist is just the first unscrupulous individual who happens to come along?
Yet this fearful medium is available to anyone who cares to make use of it. Take that ‘Kreutzer Sonata’, for example, take its first movement, the presto: can one really allow it to be played in a drawing-room full of women in low-cut dresses? To be played, and then followed a little light applause, and the eating of ice-cream, and talk about the latest society gossip? Such pieces should only be played on certain special, solemn, significant occasions when certain solemn actions have to be performed, actions that correspond to the nature of the music. It should be played, and as it’s played those actions which it’s inspired with its significance should be performed. Otherwise the generation of all that feeling and energy, which are quite inappropriate to either the place or the occasion, and which aren’t allowed any outlet, can’t have anything but a harmful effect. On me, at any rate, that piece had the most shattering effect; I had the illusion that I was discovering entirely new emotions, new possibilities I’d known nothing of before then. ‘Yes that’s it, it’s got absolutely nothing to do with the way I’ve been used to living and seeing the world, that’s how it ought to be,’ I seemed to hear a voice saying inside me. What this new reality I’d discovered was, I really didn’t know, but my awareness of this new state of consciousness filled me with joy.”
The Kreutzer Sonata by Leo Tolstoy
(Beethoven dedicated his Violin Sonata No. 9 to the violinist Rudolphe Kreutzer but Kreutzer never performed it deeming it “outrageously unintelligible”.)
Front page of an original edition of the Kreutzer Sonata